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  1. #1
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    Japanese lessons, explanations and grammar.

    For the starters, I have to say that I didn't write these lessons by myself, but I still think that they're worth putting up. I've learnt japanese for a few years, but I've had a long pause in it. For a year actually. I went trough the basics just now, and by these lessons, I was able to check what I had forgotten, and what I still knew. There are almost 20 lessons, and I might be a bit lazy with putting them up, but they're all going to come ! (: .. One day... Ahe..

    Also! These lessons are starting from the very beginning, so it'll be easy even for a total newbie!
    There will be lots of theory before the actual learning, so you can just skip the theory parts. Though they are very important too! (;

    Thouhh, if you know all the theory already, or just don't want to read it for some other reason. (laziness for ex.), scroll down to the bottom of the page, until you see the title: FIRST ACTUAL LESSON. It's also the first text with color. (teal-blue) after those colored texts, there will be a few texts, explaining the grammar of those coloured lessons.
    That's where the "meeting for the first time begin. All the posts before that are just boring grammar. (boring, but important!!)




    General information about Japan

    Without getting too deeply into details, it's useful to know some information about the country whose language you are learning:

    Capital : Tokyo

    Official language : Japanese (spoken by about 98% of the population!)

    Currency : Yen ('en' (えん) in Japanese)

    Population : about 128 million (2010)

    Japan is an archipelago composed of four main islands : Hokkaidou, Honshuu, Shikoku, Kyuushuu. In addition to that, the archipelago has about 3000 other islands.

    About 75% of the country is mountainous.

    Bowing

    Bowing is the Japanese way to say hello, goodbye, thank you, or even sorry. The Japanese bow more or less deeply, and they hold the bowed position for a shorter or longer time depending on the people they are talking to. Factors that may help you choose how to bow can be, for instance, the person's age, the person's social status, or simply how close you are to this person.

    Children learn very early how to bow in different situations. Some shops even train their employees to make sure they can bow correctly in front of customers. As a foreigner, you are not expected to learn and know all the rules and subtleties of the art.
    Last edited by Ridd; 04-01-2013 at 02:56 PM.

  2. #2
    Yaoi Supporter Ridd's Avatar
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    THE INDRODUCTION TO THE LANGUAGE (NOT NECESSARILY IMPOTANT)

    The Japanese language is very different from English, French, Spanish, German, or any other Indo-European language. Japanese is also different from other Asian languages. Even if the Japanese language borrows its writing system from the Chinese language, Chinese and Japanese sound completely different. In many ways, the Japanese language can be complex and subtle, often integrating a cultural aspect that foreigners may have a hard time understanding.

    Trying to learn Japanese without paying attention to the culture of the country is hardly possible. You will notice many such cases as you improve your Japanese skills.

    The goal of this Japanese course is to meet the needs of as many people as possible. Some want to learn how to write Japanese kanji, while others only want to learn how to speak the language. How you'll learn Japanese is not as important as why you are here. The reason is personal, and so is the source of your motivation, which you'll need to keep alive to continue studying. This website is here to help you put your knowledge into practice as much as possible through its grade system and statistics, in order to activate your knowledge instead of just reading passively. Even if you read ten grammar books, do you think you will ever be able to speak Japanese? A language is something natural, you need to make it yours by practicing it. It is by no means a collection of lessons that you need to recite by heart. Practice, practice always.

    The interactive exercises on this website will let you put into action all that you can learn. Do as many exercises as possible. Don't think that reading the lessons is enough, and just assume that you have understood everything clearly. Understanding a lesson is useless if you don't activate your knowledge. Lessons are only a tool that you need to use to make the natural language yours.

    And as our Chinese friends say, "A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step" (Tao Te Ching, Verse 64). So let's start our journey with that first step.

  3. #3
    Yaoi Supporter Ridd's Avatar
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    THE THREE WRITING SYSTEMS

    In English, we use the Latin/Roman alphabet. However, the Japanese use three systems:

    Hiragana Katakana Kanji

    You must understand that you don't have the choice of which one you want to use, because all of those writing systems can be used in the same sentence! Even if you only wish to speak the language, you need to understand the differences amongst the alphabets and how they are used.

    Hiragana

    Hiragana is what one could call the Japanese alphabet. There are 46 basic forms in modern Japanese with which you can transcribe any Japanese sound. In fact, each form is a syllable of the language (ku, fu, mi, etc.).

    This writing system can be used in several situations:

    if no kanji exists for the word (we'll see together soon what a kanji is). For instance the particle まで(made = until) has no equivalent in kanji. if you don't know how to write the kanji for the word, or if the kanji is so rare that most people may not be able to read and understand it. whenever a verb is used as an auxiliary (grammatical stuff, don't worry you'll understand later).

    Hiragana look like this: に(ni) - さ(sa) - つ(tsu) - ほ(ho). They can easily be recognized by their rounded form.

    Katakana

    Katakana is very similar to Hiragana, since it is a kind of Japanese alphabet too. For each Hiragana, a Katakana exists. Nevertheless, Katakana is used in completely different situations.

    Here are some situations very common for Katakana:

    if the word is borrowed from a foreign word (there are MANY of them). For example ネクタイ (nekutai = necktie, the Japanese word comes from the English word). if the word is an onomatopoeia (a word whose pronunciation imitates what it represents). Example ワンワン (wanwan = dog barking), リンリン (rinrin = phone ringing). to create a particular effect such as softening or emphasizing the meaning of a word.

    Katakana look like this: ニ(ni) - サ(sa) - ツ(tsu) - ホ(ho). They can easily be recognized by their sharp form.

    Kanji

    Kanji are the third Japanese writing system. Literally Kanji means "Chinese Character". If you compare a Japanese and a Chinese text, you'll notice that the characters look much the same. While some of them are exactly alike, others are a little different because of the distinctive historical evolution of each country. As China was a prestigious nation in antiquity (Silk Road), Japan imported their writing system.

    There are many Kanji, and they constitute one of the main difficulties of learning Japanese. Moreover, each Kanji can be read in different ways depending on the word it forms. Mastering them takes much time and patience.

    When leaving school, a young Japanese person knows about 2000 Kanji. A grown-up knows about 3000 to 4000 of them. A Japanese literature teacher can know as much as 7000 Kanji! For each Kanji, you'll have to learn :

    the stroke order (how to draw the Kanji) its different pronunciations its meanings

    Kanji look like this : 中国(China) 日本 (Japan).

    Sometimes the Kanji pronunciation is given using small Hiragana characters on the top or bottom of the Kanji. This is often the case in books or TV programs for children. Those small reading indicators are called Furigana.

    Roomaji

    There is one last way to write Japanese: Roomaji. This is not exactly a Japanese writing system, because Japanese people don't use it. Roomaji is rather a writing system for foreigners as it uses the Roman letters to write Japanese. We all know some of them: Suzuki, Honda, Kanji, Sushi, etc.

    Of course, using Roomaji may help you learn how to speak the language faster. But that approach is not advised, because it will prevent you from finding a good dictionary (most of them only exist in Hiragana and Kanji). That is why you should at least learn the Hiragana and Katakana characters. The first lessons will present the texts in Roomaji to make your first steps here easier. But progressively, Roomaji will disappear, so get into a good habit now.

    ----------

    My comment: FOR THESE WRITING SYSTEMS, YOU'LL FIND LOTS OF GREAT GUIDES FROM THE OTHER THREADS, MADE BY OTHER USERS! USE THEM PLEASE! THEY'RE NOT AS BAD AS THEY SEEM TO BE + WHAT'S BEST, YOU DON'T HAVE TO BE AFRAID TO TRY, THEY WON'T BITE YOU

    - - - Updated - - -

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE LANGUAGE

    The following points are examples of some differences that may exist between English and Japanese. We are not giving a grammar lesson here, but just simply giving you a quick overview of the language.

    plural and singular don't exist in Japanese. There is no difference between "cat" and "cats". But the way you can figure out whether they're talking about one thing or many things can sometimes be expressed with some words using certain suffixes. For instance: Kodomo (a child) / KodomoTACHI (group of children). verb conjugation has only one form for all personal pronouns (tabemasu = I eat, you eat, she eats, etc.) the verb is often placed at the end of the sentence or clause (as in German sometimes). verbs can only be conjugated in present or past forms. The future tense is expressed using the conjugation of the present tense. there are two sorts of adjectives. One sort behaves like nouns, and the other sort behaves like verbs! (in other words adjectives can be conjugated!) a Japanese sentence is articulated by particles that supply information about the role of each word or group in a sentence. politeness is expressed in different ways, and in different degrees, and is one complex aspect of the language Japanese is said to be an agglutinative language. A verb can be modified by adding an auxiliary that will itself be modified by another auxiliary for example. there are only 2 irregular verbs in Japanese!! (good news, right?).

  4. #4
    Yaoi Supporter Ridd's Avatar
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    As we've seen, the Japanese culture is tightly rooted in the Japanese language. It is not possible to learn the language without learning the culture.

    Most of the lessons contain a section dedicated to a cultural aspect of Japan. This information will help you avoid misunderstandings, understand people's behavior better, and stop you from behaving rudely without even realizing it (don't worry, Japanese people are very open-minded towards foreigners).

    - - - Updated - - -

    INTRODUCING THE "HOST FAMILY" (this isn't necessary. It's part of the lesson and I didn't want to leave it out.


    The Matsumotos will be your host family in Japan. They live in a beautiful Japanese-style villa on the outskirts of Tokyo. Before you meet them, to make your first encounter easier, take a look at some information about them:

    HIROSHI: The father of the family, Hiroshi is 48. He is an employee in a computing company. He enjoys watching baseball on TV, cycling, jogging and fishing with his son Takuya.

    KEIKO: The mother of the family, Keiko is 41. She is a part-timer in a supermarket. When she is off, she enjoys cooking and looking after her garden and her kids.

    AYUMI: She is the elder daughter. She has been studying in Tokyo for two years, and is now 20 years old. Like many girls her age, Ayumi likes listening to music, especially J-Pop, watching Dorama (Japanese TV series), and going shopping with her friends. Always good-humored, she often looks after her younger brother when her parents are out or busy.

    TAKUYA: 8 years old, he's the brat of the family! Soccer, video games, mangas, playing with friends: that could be a summary of Takuya's life. Even if he might seem a little shy at first, Takuya is quite out-going and nosy. That often leads him to get into mischief. If you want to learn a few slang words, just spend the week-end with him!

    CHIRO: She is the 3-year-old female dog of the family. Chiro is an Akita Inu.

  5. #5
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    VOWELS


    The Japanese language has 5 vowels: /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/. First of all, these signs are phonologic signs, which means that you should not pronounce them as you would naturally in English. Instead, they are international notations that are used to describe a sound. For example, /i/should be pronounced like "eel" or "ego", and NOT like "aisle" or "ice". The good news is that this lesson will give you lots of English references so that way you can easily understand how you should pronounce the words along with an audio example.

    Abunai (Dangerous) A as in "fAther" AUDIO

    Egao (a smile) E as in "Element"

    Itai (painful) I as in "Illusion"

    Ocha (tea) O as in "turbO"

    The particularity of /u/

    This phonologic sign indicates that the sound should be pronounced as in "root". But if you focus on the way you pronounce that word in English, you will notice that you completely round your lips. Japanese people never round their lips, but relax them instead.

    susumu (to go forward) [My comment: try to pronounce this with relaxed lips, NO ROUNDING THEM!]

    Moreover, this sound is hardly heard when placed after voiceless consonants (k,t,p,s).

    gakusei (student) is almost pronounced "gakksei"

    suizokukan (aquarium) is almost pronounced "suizokkkan"

    Finally, when the sound is placed at the end of a word, again it can barely be heard.

    Tabemasu (to eat) is almost pronounced "tabemass"

    - - - Updated - - -

    SEMI VOWELS

    The semi-vowels /y/ and /w/ also exist in English. In Japanese, /y/ can be attached to /a/, /o/ and /u/ to create the syllables /ya/, /yo/ and /yu/. They are often used:

    yameru to stop

    yoku often

    yume a dream

    And those two semi-vowels ("Y" and "W") are sometimes combined with the following consonants: "K, P, H, G, R, B, N" to form other syllables.

    hyaku hundred

    ryokou travel

    As for /w/, it can only be seen in modern Japanese when coupled with /a/. WO only exists in one word, which is the particle WO を used to indicate the direct object (more explanation later). But the /w/ sound is never pronounced in that word, を is pronounced /o/ and not /wo/.

    wakaru to understand

    warui bad

  6. #6
    Yaoi Supporter Ridd's Avatar
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    CONSONANT

    Compared to the English language, Japanese has a limited number of consonants. Most of them will be easy to pronounce because they are very similar to the English pronunciation, with a few exceptions.

    Here are the Japanese consonants: k, g, t, d, p, b, m, n, j, h, f, s. Therefore, you will never see the letters c, v, l or q in Japanese. Besides that, the sound /v/ does not exist either, and when Japanese people have to pronounce this letter when reading a foreign word, they will naturally switch it with its Japanese counterpart, that is, /b/. (Video in Japanese would actually be pronounced "bideo").

    Here are a few comments about consonants that might be problematic for an English speaker:

    SHI: is pronounced as in "SHe"

    shiawase happiness

    CHI: is pronounced as in "CHeese"

    chigaimasu to be different

    GI: is pronounced as in "GIve"

    gin silver

    JI: is pronounced as in "JEANS"

    jikan time

    HI: is pronounced as in "HIt".

    hikkoshi moving

    FU: the sound F in Japanese is not pronounced like in "fish", but rather like the H you can hear in "WHO", almost as if you were blowing a candle out.

    fukin dustcloth

    R: this sound is quite different from English. It is actually closer to the English L.

    raamen Chinese noodles

    N: you can pronounce this sound as you would in English, excepted when it is placed before p, b or m, where it would be pronounced like an M. For instance shinbun (newspaper) is pronounced shimbun, sanpo (a walk) is pronounced sampo.

    shinbun newspaper

    HA/WA: most of the time は is pronounced "Ha" but there are some stuations where it is pronounced "WA", mainly when は is a grammatical particle in the sentence. We will look at that together later.

    - - - Updated - - -

    SYLLABIC PARTICULARITIES


    Vowel lengthening

    Words transcribed from Hiragana

    In Japanese, the length of a vowel can be doubled. To indicate that (this kind of vowel is called a 'tense vowel' in phonetics), Japanese speakers use the vowel U after /o/ and /u/. We get this pattern "O or U + U" = "tense vowel". This U is not pronounced like the /u/ we talked about, but simply indicates that the vowel just before should last twice as long as usual.

    Toukyou (Tokyo, とうきょう, 東京) is pronounced Tookyoo. The first and the second /o/ are tense vowels. This is particularly important, otherwise your interlocutor might understand another word. It is the same as "bitch" and "beach" in English... In roomaji, this lengthening is also sometimes written Tôkyô, Tookyoo or even Tōkyō depending on books you are using.

    To double the length of the vowels /a/or /i/, you should not use U, but simply write the vowel a second time to get AA or II. For instance subarashii (wonderful, すばらしい), okaasan (mother, おかあさん).

    Last particularity: in a few words, the tensed O is written OO and not OU. Example Oosaka (Osaka, おおさ か, 大阪), tooi (loin, とおい). You should be aware of that. If you read the word in Hiragana, you can notice that the U う is not used, but O お is used instead. In fact, the O is repeated, and that is why you might think it is a tensed O.

    Toukyou

    Oosaka

    okaasan

    Words transcribed from Katakana

    When you write in Katakana, the lengthening of a vowel is written with a bar ー after the vowel. If you write in Roomaji, you should not use /U/ in this case, but instead write the vowel twice right next to each other. For instance, in Katakana, the words "biiru" (beer, ビール), "buutsu" (boots, ブーツ), and "paatii" (party, パー ティー). However, when writing it in Hiragana, it would be "gyuunyuu" (milk, ぎゅうにゅう).

    biiru

    buutsu

    paatii

    gyuunyuu

    Note about the written form

    As seen in the example Toukyou, some words can be written in different ways in roomaji. Those transcriptions are based on a system called Hepburn, which exists in many different forms. I chose to write Toukyou that way for several reasons:

    This system offers the possibility to differentiate the double vowels in "tooi" (とおい) from the tense vowel in "Toukyou" (とう きょう) This system offers the possibility to write Kana and Kanji on a computer simply by typing the letters as indicated by the word in roomaji. This system offers the possibility to know from the roomaji form whether a word is usually written in Katakana or in Hiragana.

    The double consonant

    Consonants can last twice as long! You only need to write them twice (kk, tt, ss, etc.). As for the pronunciation, you should pronounce the consonant as if you got stuck on it, then slide toward the next syllable of the word. For instance "gaKKou" (school). To double a consonant in Hiragana, you need to place a small TSU つ kana right before the consonant it modifies. The small TSU is actually represented as っ. This kana is not pronounced "tsu", it is only a graphical indication for you to know that you need to make the consonant last twice as long. The word "gakkou" is then written がっこう and not がつ こう.

    gakkou school

    happa leaf

    matto doormat

    Syllable N

    /N/ is a consonant and a syllable in Japanese, even though it is just a single letter. In English, it is impossible to have a syllable without a vowel, but in Japanese, it is possible. The syllabic structure of "konbanwa" (good evening) for example is KO-N-BA-N-WA and not KON-BAN-WA. If you listen to Japanese music, you might notice sometimes the singer pronounces the N in a word very clearly.

  7. #7
    Yaoi Supporter Ridd's Avatar
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    FIRST ACTUAL LESSON!!



    You've arrived at Narita Airport, Tokyo. Mr. Hiroshi Matsumoto and his daughter Ayumi have come to welcome you.


    Roomaji

    {You} Matsumoto-san desu ka.

    Hiroshi Hai, Matsumoto desu.

    {You} Hajimemashite.

    Hiroshi Hajimemashite. Douzo yoroshiku.

    {You} Kochira koso douzo yoroshiku onegaishimasu.



    Kana

    {You} まつもとさん で す か。

    ひろ し はい、まつもとで す。

    {You} はじめまして。

    ひろ し はじめまして。 ど うぞ よろしく。

    {You} こちら こそ どう ぞ よろしく おね がいします。



    Kanji

    {You} 松本さん です か。

    浩志 はい、松本 です。

    {You} はじめまして。

    浩志 はじめまして。 ど うぞ よろしく。

    {You} こちら こそ どう ぞ よろしく お願 いします。


    Translation

    {You} Are you Mr. Matsumoto?
    Hiroshi Yes, I am Mr. Matsumoto.
    You} Nice to meet you.
    Hiroshi How do you do? [literally: how do you do, thank you for being nice to us]
    {You} [literally: it's I who should say that, thank you for being nice to me]
    Last edited by Ridd; 04-01-2013 at 02:48 PM.

  8. #8
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    This first text is a perfect example of how deeply the Japanese culture can be rooted in the language, and how much the language can be different from ours. The text illustrates several typical Japanese phrases used when meeting someone for the first time.

    Hajimemashite - はじめまして

    Every time you meet someone for the first time in Japan you can use the phrase はじめまして the same way as you say "nice to meet you". If someone says to you はじめまして, simply answer the same.

    Douzo yoroshiku - どうぞよろ しく

    This phrase is often used after はじめ まして when you're introducing yourself. Yoroshiku means "good". By using this phrase you're asking your interlocutor to be nice to you so that your relationship will get on well. This phrase could be translated as: "thank you to be nice to me". Your interlocutor should answer the same. There is no perfect equivalence in English for this phrase. It's very common to add Onegaishimasu (おね がいします) to make the phrase more polite.

    Kochira koso - こちらこそ

    In Japan, being humble in social relationships is much appreciated. When your interlocutor shows you respect, you can say こちらこそ, which means "It's I who should say that" to show that you respect them, too.

    - - - Updated - - -

    Personal pronouns

    There are many personal pronouns in Japanese, but for the time being it's useless to know them all. Here is a list of the main ones you should know:

    I watashi わたし you (singular) anata あなた

    he kare かれ she kanojo かのじょ

    we watashitachi わたした ち

    you (plural) anatatachi あなたた ち they (men) karera かれら they (women) kanojotachi かのじょ たち

    Notice that the Japanese language uses the suffix -TACHI (たち) to express the idea of a group in some cases (except for KARERA here).

    You need to know that the Japanese language doesn't use the personal pronouns if they are not required to understand the sentence, similar to the Italian language.

    Copula DESU

    DESU (です) at the end of the sentence expresses politeness in Japanese. It can often be translated as the verb TO BE, but not systematically. There will be many more opportunities later to see this copula in detail. Just remember for now that it must be put at the end of the sentence.

    まつもとさんです。 Matsumoto-san desu. It's Mr. Matsumoto.

    だいじょうぶです。 Daijoubu desu. I'm all right.

    Asking a question with KA

    The particle KA (か) is used to form questions. You only need to put this particle at the end of the sentence to turn the sentence into a question. No other structural modification is needed.

    まつもとさんですか。 Matsumoto-san desu ka. Is it Mr. Matsumoto?

    だいじょうぶですか。 Daijoubu desu ka. Are you all right ?

    Suffix SAN

    SAN (さん) is a suffix to express politeness and respect, which corresponds to Mr. or Mrs. It must be added to the end of the first name or family name (in some other cases too sometimes). Only context will let you know whether SAN refers to a man or a woman.

    Be careful! SAN cannot be used to talk about yourself or even someone of your family if your interlocutor is from another family. If you do that you are openly honoring yourself, and that would be quite arrogant from the Japanese point of view. But as a foreigner, you'll make the mistake for sure, and thank God, the Japanese won't mind at all.

    Compare those two sentences :

    やまださんです。 Yamada-san desu. It's Mr./Mrs. Yamada.

    やまだです。 Yamada desu. I'm Mr./Mrs Yamada

  9. #9
    Yaoi Supporter Ridd's Avatar
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    As you are walking to the airport parking lot together, Hiroshi helps you carry your suitcase, and you start to talk with his daughter Ayumi.



    Roomaji

    {You}

    Watashi wa furansujin desu. Nihongo no daigakusei desu. Anata mo daigakusei desu ka.

    AUDIO

    Ayumi Hai, watashi mo daigakusei desu. AUDIO

    {You} Nan nen sei desu ka. AUDIO

    Ayumi Ni nen sei desu. AUDIO

    Kana

    {You}

    わたし は フラン スじん です。 に ほんご の だいが くせい です。 あ なた も だいがく せい です か。

    AUDIO

    あゆ み はい、 わたし も だいがくせい で す。 AUDIO

    {You} なん ねん せい です か。 AUDIO

    あゆ み に ねん せい で す。 AUDIO

    Kanji

    {You}

    私 は フランス人 です。 日本語 の 大学生 です。 あなた も 大学 生 です か。

    AUDIO

    あゆ み はい、 私 も 大 学生 です。 AUDIO

    {You} 何年生 です か。 AUDIO

    あゆ み 二 年生 です。 AUDIO

    Translation

    {You} I'm French. I study the Japanese language at the university. Are you a student, too? Ayumi Yes, I am a student, too. {You} What year are you? Ayumi I'm a second year student.



    (Don't mind those audios. I was just too lazy to erase them with my mobile... >_<)

  10. #10
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    Valentine - Katekyo Usagi & Misaki Fumihiro Motoki Usagi & Misaki
    Thank You

    This will surely help me

    I wish to learn more from you sensei.

    I'll check this thread once in a while

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